Anemia occurs when there are not enough functional red blood cells in the body to carry adequate oxygen to the cells and tissues. Weakness and fatigue are frequent symptoms of anaemia, also known as low haemoglobin.
Multiple forms of anaemia each have their own unique causes. Anaemia may be mild, moderate, or severe, depending on the individual’s body’s ability to produce red blood cells. The majority of cases of anaemia have many underlying causes. If you think you may have anaemia, make an appointment with your primary care physician. It is possible that it is an early indicator of a severe sickness.
It is possible that the symptoms of anaemia are so subtle that you are unable to recognise them at all. As your blood cell count drops below a particular threshold, you may start to experience symptoms. Symptoms of anaemia may include, but are not limited to, the following, depending on the underlying cause:
- weakness or Tiredness
- Unusual or Fast heartbeat
- Skin which is yellow or pale
- Shortness of breath
- Growth Problems for teens and children
- Pain, in your joints, belly, chest, and bones,
- Dizziness, lightheadness, or feeling like you are about to pass out
- Cold feet and hands
There are about 400 different forms of anaemia, and they may be broken down into the following three categories: Anemia brought on by excessive blood loss You may lose red blood cells by bleeding. This may take place gradually over a significant amount of time, and you may not even realise it happening. Among the possible causes are:
- Gastrointestinal conditions for example cancer, hemorrhoids, ulcers, gastritis (inflammation of your stomach),
- NSAIDs (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines), that include ibuprofen and aspirin, are known to increase the risk of developing gastritis and ulcers.
- A woman’s period, particularly if she has very strong menstrual bleeding (or heavy period). This has been connected to the development of fibroids.
- post-surgery or trauma as well.
- Anemia resulting from a lower number of red blood cells being produced or from manufacturing problems
If you have this kind of anaemia, your body may not produce sufficient blood cells, or the ones it does produce may not function in the appropriate manner. It’s possible that something is wrong with your red blood cells, or that you simply don’t get enough of the vitamins and minerals your body needs for your red blood cells to produce correctly. Either of these things might create this problem. Anemia may be caused by a variety of conditions, including the following: Concerns with bone marrow as well as stem cells:
Problems in the bone marrow and stem cells can prevent your body from creating a sufficient number of red blood cells. There is marrow in the core of each of your bones, and some of those stem cells will turn into red blood cells at some point. You may get anaemia if there are not enough stem cells, if they do not function properly, or if they are replaced by other cells such as cancer cells in your body. Among the many causes of anaemia are issues with stem cells or bone marrow.
- Aplastic anemia: It takes place when a person does not have enough stem cells or when they do not have any at all. You may be predisposed to develop aplastic anaemia as a result of your family history or because of damage to your bone marrow brought on by infection, chemotherapy, radiation, or medication. Leukemia and multiple myeloma are two more types of cancer that often manifest themselves in the bone marrow. There isn’t always a definitive reason why someone has aplastic anaemia.
- Lead poisoning: Lead is poisonous to your bone marrow, which results in a less number of red blood cells in your body. Lead poisoning may occur for either adults or children, for example if adults come into touch with lead at work or if children consume paint chips that contain lead. Additionally, it is possible to get the illness if the earthenware used to prepare your meal is not properly glazed and it comes into touch with your food.
- Thalassemia: It takes place when there is an issue with the creation of haemoglobin, specifically when all four chains do not form properly. It causes the body to produce abnormally little red blood cells, but depending on how many are produced, the condition may either be mild or severe. People of African, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, or Southeast Asian heritage are more likely to be affected by this condition than those of other racial or ethnic backgrounds. This illness may vary from being quite harmless to being potentially fatal; its most severe manifestation is known as Cooley’s anaemia.
Anemia caused by a lack of iron in the body is called iron deficiency anaemia. Iron is a mineral. The production of haemoglobin in the bone marrow, the component of red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen to the body’s tissues, is impossible without adequate iron levels. Anemia due to a lack of iron may be caused by the following:
- A persistent slow bleed, which often originates in the gastrointestinal tract, is a prevalent cause.
- A diet deficient in iron, particularly among newborns, teenagers, and adolescents, as well as vegans and vegetarians
- caffeinated drinks, foods, and Certain drugs
- Conditions of the digestive tract such Crohn’s disease, or if you’ve had a portion of your stomach or small intestine removed due to surgery.
- Donating blood often
- Endurance training
- Pregnancy and breastfeeding using up iron in your body
Sickle cell anemia:
The red blood cells in your body, that are typically round, will take on the form of a crescent due of an issue with your genes. Anemia happens when the red blood cells in your body die off too rapidly, which prevents oxygen from reaching your organs. Additionally, the crescent-shaped red blood cells are prone to becoming caught in the narrow blood veins, which may result in excruciating agony.
Vitamin-deficiency anemia, especially b12 or folate: Anemia caused by a lack of vitamin B12 or folate in the diet may lead to a condition known as vitamin deficiency anemia. You require these two vitamins to form red blood cells. Causes of this kind of anemia include the following:
- Dietary deficiency: It is possible that you will not get enough vitamin B12 if you eat very little or no meat. It is possible that you will not consume enough folate-rich veggies if you either overcook them or do not consume them in sufficient quantities.
- Megaloblastic anemia: When either vitamin B12 or folate, or both, are insufficient in your diet.
- Pernicious anemia: If your body is unable to absorb an adequate amount of vitamin B12
The breakdown of red blood cells may result in anemia:
Red blood cells that are frail and unable to withstand the stress of passing through your body are more likely to rupture, which may lead to a condition known as hemolytic anemia. This condition might be present when you were born, or it could develop at a later time. Sometimes it might be difficult to determine what causes hemolytic anemia, however some possible reasons are as follows:
- An attack conducted by your immune system, such as in the case of lupus. This might happen to anybody, even an unborn child or a baby who has just been born. The medical term for this condition is hemolytic disease of the infant.
- Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, sickle cell anemia, and thalassemia are examples of conditions that may be inherited from one generation to the next through one’s DNA (TTP)
- Enlarged spleen. In very unusual instances, this might cause red blood cells to get trapped and be destroyed before their time.
- Anything which causes your body to work harder than it should, such an illness, medicine, the venom of a snake or spider, or even some meals.
- Toxins resulting from a severe condition of either the liver or the kidneys
- clotting disorders, severe hypertension, being around specific chemicals, severe burns, tumors, prosthetic heart valves, and Vascular grafts.
During CBC “Complete Blood Count” test, your red blood cells, haemoglobin, and other components of your blood will be evaluated and measured. These components of your blood include:
- Blood smear or differential to determine the number of white blood cells in your blood, examine the shape of your red blood cells, and search for any atypical cells.
- Counting reticulocytes is a test for detecting immature red blood cells.
Dietary adjustments are a common component of anemia treatment plans. Foods rich in iron and other vitamins essential for haemoglobin and red blood cell synthesis are the most effective therapy for anaemia. In addition to that, it has to include meals that make iron absorption in the body easier. Nonheme and Heme iron are the two forms that may be found in meals that contain iron. Heme iron may be found in a variety of foods, including beef, poultry, and shellfish. Plant foods as well as foods that have been supplemented with iron naturally contain nonheme iron. Both forms may be absorbed by your body, although heme iron is often taken in more quickly. There is no one diet that can heal anemia. But having a diet that is healthful in general and rich in:
- leafy greens, Dark,
- seeds and nuts,
- beans, meat, seafood,
- Vegetables and fruits high in vitamin C may increase in iron absorption, which is useful for treating anaemia.
A few things to keep in mind about the anemia diet
- Eat iron-rich meals alongside foods or drinks that prevent iron from being absorbed is not a good idea. Eggs, beverages like coffee or tea, foods rich in oxalates, as well as foods high in calcium are examples of these.
- Eat iron-rich foods having vitamin C-rich foods, for example strawberries, tomatoes, or oranges, for improving absorption.
- Eat foods that are high in iron with foods that are rich in beta carotene, for example beets, apricots, red peppers, for increasing absorption.
- To increase the amount of iron in your diet, eat foods rich in both heme and nonheme iron during the course of the day.
- Eat nonheme as well as heme iron foods together if possible, for increasing iron absorption.
- Eating foods that are high in folate and vitamin B-12 to help improve the synthesis of red blood cells.